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The Thirteenth Annual Game Design Think Tank
Project Horseshoe 2018
horseshoe Group Report:
Designing Feelings of Companionship
with Non-Player Characters
   
Participants: A.K.A. "Wolfgang"
Tom Abernathy, ArenaNet Jenn Ash, Bungie
Joel Burgess, Ubisoft Toronto Joel Gonzales, Firaxis
Devin Low, EA PopCap Linsey Murdock, ArenaNet
Chris Proctor, 343 Industries Simon Strange, Pipeworks
Facilitator: Zack Hiwiller, Full Sail  
  download the PDF

Brief Problem Statement

What creates a feeling of companionship with a non-player character? How might designers better ensure that a character will resonate with players and create some level of attachment to that character and by extension, the game?

A brief statement of the group’s solutions
to those problems

In order to better understand how to create feelings of companionship, we examined different elements of companionship. Five categories of affect emerged that could be tested against and scored to give a designer a sense for how strong the feelings of companionship a character might elicit from players might be.

These categories are:

  • Personhood
  • Bonding
  • Investment
  • Value
  • Stakes

Within each category, we propose techniques that may be useful for game designers when creating a companion. These techniques might increase or decrease feelings towards their category and should be balanced as such. Obtaining a high score in all categories does not appear to be necessary for a companion to have a high feeling of companionship amongst players.

Expanded problem statement

Many games include AI companions, friendly NPCs the player has an ongoing relationship with, or NPCs the player can recruit and control directly. Ideally, these companions can create attachment in players that would further endear them to the game through feelings of companionship. Elements that are designed into the nature of these characters might increase or decrease that sense of companionship. It is important for designers to have awareness of how their design might result in terms of companionship.

Expanded solution description

CATEGORIES OF FACTORS THAT ENCOURAGE
FEELINGS OF COMPANIONSHIP

We have categorized aspects of well known character companions from video games, ending up with five categories that factor into establishing feelings of companionship. These categories were tested with a public survey.

Defining each category with example techniques of increasers and detractors.

  • Personhood - The overall impression that the NPC is a real person – with their own motivations, autonomy, and internal emotional life
    • Theory: if an NPC seems like a real person, players will attach more importance to them
    • Factors and techniques for a higher sense of personhood
      • Noticeable, unique personality traits
      • Don’t let the character overstay their welcome or become annoying
      • Features that suggest a life beyond their journey with the player
      • Implied detailed lives or backstories
      • Motivations & objectives of their own, the illusion of autonomy
      • Character has the ability to interact with the environment in natural-seeming ways
    • Factors and techniques for a lower sense of personhood
      • Ability to take direct control of the character(s)
      • Players ability to rename other human NPCs unless it is their child
      • Non-human, non-animal, non-anthropomorphized beings
      • Breaking the illusion of reality through gamey features or buggy behavior
      • Talking about UI menus & buttons
  • Bonding - Shared experiences build a deep sense of connection
    • Theory: if players go through memorable experiences with an NPC they will build a sense of camaraderie
    • Factors and techniques for high bonding
      • Shared key experiences (e.g. trauma)
      • Romance and/or friendship
      • Vulnerability & trust - especially if this is tested
      • Bond through common adversary
      • Drive relationship via player choice
    • Factors and techniques for low bonding
      • Undermining the player in story or gameplay
      • Superficial writing, character doesn’t have depth
      • Unlikeable characterization
      • Unappealing performance through AI behavior or voice over
      • Repetitive dialogue
  • Investment - The player can spend resources (time, attention, currencies) which deepen their engagement with the character relationship
    • Theory: expending resources on an NPC will grow a player’s attachment to them, e.g. sunk cost fallacy
    • Factors and techniques for high investment
      • Complete loyalty quests
      • Choose actions to invest in relationship
      • Guide ability progression
      • Customize appearance
      • Protection opportunities through gameplay mechanics or progression (e.g. gearing)
    • Factors and techniques for low investment
      • Characters don’t remember your actions
      • Game systems are poorly camouflaged
      • Disposable
      • Lacking progression, the character is static
  • Value - Character confers benefit to the player that is otherwise uncommon or unavailable
    • Theory: a direct benefit will motivate the player to interact more with an NPC than they may otherwise, giving features in the other categories a chance to kick in
    • Factors and techniques for high value
      • Direct gameplay benefits
      • Special interactivity
      • Emergent relationships feel personal
      • Character is hard to find, conferring value via scarcity
      • Synergistic gameplay with the player or party
    • Factors and techniques for low value
      • Behaviors that can become liabilities (e.g. bad AI)
      • Excessive negative penalties
      • Low gameplay benefit
  • Stakes - The relationship appears subject to consequences from action or neglect
    • Theory: loss aversion will drive players to appreciate an NPC more while they have them, and mourning a fallen NPC cements the importance of those that remain
    • Factors and techniques for high stakes
      • Persistent grievous injuries
      • Character can or does leave you
      • If the character dies, they stay dead
      • Character can betray you
      • Character turns evil
    • Factors and techniques for low stakes
      • Companions are invulnerable
      • Easily replaceable
      • No consequences if you fail

IMPACT OF SURVEY RESULTS

Some of the categories ended up predicting feelings of companionship with the NPCs we selected, others didn’t, suggesting that we should trim the list of categories in order to make them more useful as a development tool.

From analysis of our survey data, we’ve rated our categories for how effective they were at causing feelings of companionship.

  • Personhood - very strong predictiveness
  • Bonding - moderate predictiveness
  • Investment - weak predictiveness
  • Value - strong predictiveness
  • Stakes - strong predictiveness

We feel that the low predictiveness of Investment features may reflect on our choice of games or how we framed the category, but as it stands our survey results do not support Investment as a way to increase feelings of companionship.

The survey results supported our categories well, agreeing with the hypothesis that NPCs that demonstrate Personhood and Value, that the player can Bond with and potentially lose will cause more attachment. However, note that the results also show that NPCs don’t need to hit all categories for players to have a strong feeling of companionship with them. For example, XCOM soldiers score high for Stakes and Value, but low for Personhood, and players get very attached to them (not to the point of feeling strong companionship though). By contrast, Elizabeth scores very high for Personhood but low for Stakes and players also get very attached to her.

Another possible  source of error is the time factor - all of the respondents to our survey are using memories of their game experiences from months or years prior. The general praise and continued success of X-COM and Pokemon (as just two examples) may have influenced and shifted their memories of those game experiences. Testing our five factors against feelings of companionship in a more immediate time frame might yield somewhat different results.

Note that it seems more effective to build best-in-class versions of a features in a couple of these categories instead of a lower bar in features spread across all categories.
 

APPENDIX A: Survey questions

For each of the categories, we developed survey questions to explore if we could evaluate how effective an NPC is at being a companion. We developed the following questions based on these categories:

Personhood

  • P1 What did you think of this character? [Strongly dislike --Neither dislike nor like-- Strongly like]
  • P2 How important was this character to your journey? [Not at all important -- Somewhat important -- Very important]
  • P3 This character had motivations unique to themself/themselves. [Not at all true-- Somewhat true -- Very true]
  • P4 This character was...Happy [Not at all -- Somewhat -- Very]
  • P5 This character was...Clever  [Not at all -- Somewhat -- Very]
  • P6 This character was...Annoying  [Not at all -- Somewhat -- Very]
  • P7 This character was…Encouraging  [Not at all -- Somewhat -- Very]
  • P8 How attached did you feel to this character? [Not at all -- Somewhat -- Very much]
  • P9 How much did you want to know more about this character? [Not at all -- Somewhat -- Very much]
  • P10 The content this character provided was mostly… [Informational -- Story-related]
  • P11 This character felt more like a ....[Tool -- Person]
  • P12 This character’s life/backstory was…[Limited -- Detailed]

Values

  • V13 How difficult would the game have been without this character? [Very hard -- Neither hard nor easy -- Very easy]
  • V14 How autonomous (taking initiative for themselves) did this character feel? [Not at all -- Somewhat -- Very much]
  • V15 This character’s abilities enhanced the game. [Strongly disagree -- Neither disagree nor agree -- Strongly agree]
  • V16 How much did this character re-enforce your role in the world? [Not at all -- Somewhat -- Very much]
  • V17 This character was more of a …[Hindrance -- Benefit]
  • V18 How much attention did you have to pay to this character throughout the game? [Too little attention -- About right attention -- Too much attention]

Stakes

  • S19 How much did you engage with this character throughout the game? [Too little engagement -- About right engagement -- Too much engagement]
  • S20 Was there ever a conflict of ideas between you and this character? [Never -- Sometimes -- All the time]
  • S21 How obligated did you feel towards this character...to interact with them? [Not at all -- Sometimes -- All the time]
  • S22 How obligated did you feel towards this character...to please them?  [Not at all -- Sometimes -- All the time]
  • S23 How obligated did you feel towards this character...to protect them?  [Not at all -- Sometimes -- All the time]
  • S24 Did you ever feel in danger of losing this character permanently? [Never -- Sometimes -- All the time]
  • S25 Did this character’s programmed behaviors ever break your experience of them as a companion? [Never -- Sometimes -- All of the time]

Bonding

  • B26 I shared key moments with this character. [Strongly disagree -- Neither disagree nor agree -- Strongly agree]
  • B27 The relationship I had with this character was…[Not at all meaningful -- Somewhat meaningful -- Very meaningful]
  • B28 I trusted this character. [Not at all -- Somewhat -- Very much]
  • B29 This character had connections with others in the world other than myself. [Strongly disagree -- Neither disagree nor agree -- Strongly agree]
  • B30 This character had opinions about things and/or characters in the world that didn’t always align with my own. [Strongly disagree -- Neither disagree nor agree -- Strongly agree]
  • B31 How much did your own choice/actions feel like they influenced who this character was? [Not at all -- Somewhat -- Very much]

Investment

  • I32 I developed a meaningful relationship with this character. [Strongly disagree -- Neither disagree nor agree -- Strongly agree]
  • I33 Did this character feel…[Disposable -- Irreplaceable]

Overall

  • C34 What did you think of this character as a companion? [Strongly liked -- Neither disliked nor liked -- Strongly liked]
  • C35 How frustrating was this character as a companion? [Not at all frustrating -- Somewhat frustrating -- Very frustrating]
  • C36 The sense of companionship in this character was…[Very weak -- Neither weak nor strong -- Very strong]

Survey Results

We ran the survey via surveygizmo.com from December 6th through December 11, 2018. There were a total of 240 completed surveys used in the following results. While there numerous details to be improved upon (survey logic, consistency of scale, consolidated questions per character, to name a few), we were able to get a general idea of a direction to be taken to evaluate our theories.
The following results are a first pass at understanding which questions could help inform designers of companionship traits in NPCs.

Characters

Game

Total Responses

Elizabeth

Bioshock

59

Delilah

Firewatch

37

Atreus

God of War 2018

37

Trico

Last Guardian

15

Cheeseburger

Far Cry 5

15

Cappy

Super Mario Odyssey

64

Braham

Guild Wars 2

21

Cole

Gars of War

15

Squaddies

X-Com

54

Pikachu

Pokemon

94

Villagers

Stardew Valley

62

Navi

Legend of Zelda

90

Ghost

Destiny 2

40

C Cube

Portal

82

Alyx

Half-Life 2

26

Clementine

Walking Dead

19

Quiet

Metal Gear Solid 5

13

Yoshi

Super Mario World

34


Personhood Question Averages

 

P1

P2

P3

P4

P5

P6

P7

P8

P9

P10

P11

P12

Elizabeth

4.24

4.34

3.98

3.02

4.16

1.88

3.74

4.07

4.15

4.17

3.77

3.96

Delilah

4.47

4.67

4.53

3.00

4.17

1.79

3.72

4.08

4.50

3.94

4.56

3.06

Atreus

4.24

4.68

4.18

3.00

4.03

2.44

3.52

4.35

4.35

4.09

4.18

3.91

Trico

4.50

4.93

3.93

3.21

3.29

3.43

2.86

4.43

4.43

3.70

3.75

2.10

Cheeseburger

3.79

2.36

2.07

3.55

2.45

2.38

1.80

2.71

2.29

2.75

1.57

1.77

Cappy

3.50

3.72

2.73

4.11

2.55

2.38

4.00

2.50

1.87

2.13

1.42

1.32

Braham

2.95

3.15

3.90

2.20

2.50

3.20

3.20

2.75

3.30

4.32

4.00

3.50

Cole

4.00

3.36

3.43

3.57

2.57

2.00

3.79

3.54

3.43

4.21

3.92

2.69

Squaddies

4.10

4.30

1.50

2.50

2.72

2.05

2.55

4.14

2.39

2.07

1.98

1.22

Pikachu

3.91

2.95

1.83

4.51

2.76

2.15

3.21

3.31

2.49

3.23

2.05

1.27

Villagers

4.32

4.13

4.14

3.70

3.00

2.24

3.88

3.82

4.00

4.06

4.20

3.48

Navi

3.01

3.29

2.06

3.38

2.75

4.03

3.83

2.69

2.33

1.72

1.74

1.33

Ghost

3.39

3.53

1.95

3.14

3.35

3.22

3.97

2.68

2.89

2.77

2.11

1.22

Companion Cube

4.15

3.28

1.39

2.17

1.61

1.43

2.21

3.40

2.13

3.71

1.28

1.19

Alyx Vance

4.60

4.40

3.96

3.32

4.68

1.72

4.04

4.20

4.17

4.19

4.33

3.36

Clementine

4.63

4.84

4.32

2.89

3.95

1.74

3.84

4.74

4.26

4.72

4.68

3.72

Quiet

3.45

3.45

4.00

1.82

4.00

1.73

2.30

2.91

3.91

4.70

2.91

2.91

Yoshi

4.48

3.76

1.64

4.60

1.82

1.68

2.62

3.52

3.06

2.86

1.43

1.31


Value Question Averages

 

V13

V14

V15

V16

V17

V18

Elizabeth

2.53

3.25

3.83

4.29

4.22

2.93

Delilah

2.08

3.72

3.61

4.51

4.53

3.19

Atreus

2.26

3.68

4.38

4.45

4.53

3.00

Trico

1.00

4.00

4.57

4.29

3.91

3.36

Cheeseburger

3.21

2.46

3.29

2.07

4.38

2.14

Cappy

1.58

1.40

4.67

3.30

4.60

2.78

Braham

3.00

3.25

2.90

3.15

3.31

2.90

Cole

2.71

3.43

3.14

3.50

4.33

2.57

Squaddies

1.30

1.22

4.54

4.35

4.76

3.31

Pikachu

3.29

1.51

3.51

3.17

4.27

2.84

Villagers

2.75

2.95

3.39

4.25

4.38

3.05

Navi

2.54

1.80

2.97

3.14

3.45

3.70

Ghost

2.42

1.63

3.24

3.68

3.91

3.29

Companion Cube

2.04

1.13

3.15

3.40

4.34

2.99

Alyx Vance

2.56

3.60

3.68

3.92

4.26

3.08

Clementine

3.21

3.26

2.95

4.53

3.80

3.16

Quiet

2.55

2.73

4.18

3.09

4.64

2.64

Yoshi

2.00

1.42

4.70

3.21

4.88

2.94


Stakes Question Averages

 

S19

S20

S21

S22

S23

S24

S25

Elizabeth

2.93

2.41

3.32

2.92

3.79

1.83

2.25

Delilah

2.94

3.25

3.92

3.17

2.39

2.50

1.36

Atreus

3.00

2.97

3.53

3.00

4.03

2.09

1.88

Trico

3.36

2.86

4.50

3.93

4.00

2.71

2.43

Cheeseburger

2.21

1.43

2.07

2.14

2.71

1.71

2.43

Cappy

2.92

1.22

2.20

1.57

1.60

1.23

1.45

Braham

3.05

3.70

3.00

2.25

2.30

1.90

2.50

Cole

2.86

1.86

2.07

1.93

2.57

1.79

2.07

Squaddies

2.96

1.24

2.90

1.73

4.65

4.81

2.10

Pikachu

2.84

1.22

2.77

2.69

3.14

1.28

1.34

Villagers

3.27

2.68

3.73

3.82

2.41

1.31

2.27

Navi

3.69

1.85

3.02

1.71

1.34

1.23

2.95

Ghost

2.68

4.13

2.84

3.22

1.29

2.61

2.82

Companion Cube

2.91

1.14

3.26

1.93

3.10

3.56

1.11

Alyx Vance

2.76

1.84

3.48

3.00

3.36

2.32

2.28

Clementine

3.11

2.68

4.37

4.21

4.95

3.32

1.42

Quiet

2.50

2.09

2.73

2.45

2.73

2.73

2.00

Yoshi

2.88

1.09

3.18

2.12

3.58

3.33

1.61


Bonding Question Averages

 

B26

B27

B28

B29

B30

B31

Elizabeth

4.17

3.81

4.15

3.97

3.68

2.24

Delilah

4.63

4.25

3.69

3.77

4.14

2.67

Atreus

4.79

4.38

3.97

4.56

4.35

2.74

Trico

4.57

4.29

4.00

2.46

3.58

2.43

Cheeseburger

2.29

2.43

3.14

2.29

1.56

1.43

Cappy

3.22

2.05

4.02

3.32

1.62

1.38

Braham

3.95

3.10

2.90

4.75

4.40

2.45

Cole

3.79

2.93

4.21

3.71

3.29

1.71

Squaddies

3.79

2.70

3.30

2.07

1.77

3.80

Pikachu

2.98

2.72

3.63

2.00

1.71

2.28

Villagers

4.24

3.71

3.70

4.31

4.04

2.84

Navi

2.80

2.23

3.78

2.14

2.10

1.17

Ghost

1.84

2.37

1.53

1.95

1.50

2.05

Companion Cube

3.78

2.99

3.24

2.51

1.24

1.75

Alyx Vance

4.25

3.58

4.50

4.46

3.13

2.00

Clementine

4.89

4.79

4.63

4.11

3.68

3.53

Quiet

4.09

3.18

3.73

3.00

2.64

2.09

Yoshi

2.97

2.58

3.91

2.10

1.36

1.91


Investment Question Averages

 

I32

I33

Elizabeth

3.69

4.16

Delilah

4.31

4.57

Atreus

4.35

4.71

Trico

4.21

4.71

Cheeseburger

2.57

2.58

Cappy

1.97

3.06

Braham

3.40

3.44

Cole

3.14

3.58

Squaddies

2.98

2.88

Pikachu

2.93

3.07

Villagers

3.93

4.00

Navi

2.20

2.65

Ghost

2.32

2.79

Companion Cube

3.11

2.85

Alyx Vance

3.84

4.38

Clementine

4.79

4.95

Quiet

3.36

3.60

Yoshi

2.82

2.76


Overall Companion Question Averages

 

C34

C35

C36

Elizabeth

4.19

1.83

3.81

Delilah

4.47

1.72

4.36

Atreus

4.53

2.03

4.58

Trico

4.29

3.07

4.57

Cheeseburger

3.71

2.29

2.71

Cappy

3.18

1.70

2.17

Braham

2.95

2.75

3.15

Cole

4.43

1.57

3.29

Squaddies

3.66

2.54

3.08

Pikachu

3.80

1.66

3.08

Villagers

3.96

2.09

3.68

Navi

2.76

3.49

2.47

Ghost

3.03

2.26

2.47

Companion Cube

4.03

1.68

2.96

Alyx Vance

4.56

1.76

4.08

Clementine

4.79

1.84

4.84

Quiet

4.00

1.73

3.27

Yoshi

4.31

2.00

3.48


Sum of Difference between Ideal and Average Response

 

Variance from av. Affinity (Personhood)

 

Variance from av. Affinity (Value)

 

Variance from av. Affinity (Stakes)

 

Variance from av. Affinity (Bonding)

 

Variance from av. Affinity (Investment)

 

Variance from av. Affinity (Companionship Overall)

 

Question Variance (Personhood)

 

P1

P2

P3

P4

P5

P6

P7

P8

P9

P10

P11

P12

Elizabeth

0.537

0.987

0.879

0.845

1.182

0.787

1.414

1.202

1.304

0.528

1.409

1.306

Delilah

0.533

0.686

0.533

0.722

0.941

0.770

0.604

0.941

0.479

0.434

0.252

1.246

Atreus

0.730

0.401

0.710

0.965

0.860

1.033

0.974

0.679

0.826

0.291

0.675

1.008

Trico

0.838

0.067

1.210

0.457

1.314

1.410

1.000

0.410

0.552

1.273

1.590

0.989

Cheeseburger

1.410

1.829

1.552

3.171

2.124

0.886

1.956

2.352

1.971

0.300

0.695

0.681

Cappy

0.889

1.761

1.291

1.610

1.769

1.547

1.611

1.556

1.170

1.160

0.343

0.291

Braham

0.648

0.690

0.790

0.762

1.162

1.462

0.614

1.290

1.733

0.221

0.400

1.333

Cole

0.841

0.829

0.838

1.829

1.524

1.495

1.029

1.478

1.267

0.495

0.923

1.412

Squaddies

0.629

0.816

0.780

1.722

2.478

1.624

2.129

1.232

1.628

1.014

1.158

0.227

Pikachu

0.883

2.232

1.064

2.042

2.080

1.559

2.601

1.936

1.672

2.102

1.454

0.336

Villagers

0.484

1.307

0.859

1.168

0.984

0.949

0.659

1.263

1.049

0.782

0.971

1.384

Navi

1.168

1.819

1.207

1.825

1.574

1.167

1.490

1.490

1.673

0.736

0.894

0.292

Ghost

1.067

1.949

1.126

1.256

1.640

1.515

1.259

1.999

2.148

1.746

1.410

0.171

Companion Cube

0.745

2.031

0.814

2.332

1.435

1.040

2.516

1.997

2.369

2.640

0.543

0.331

Alyx

0.326

0.635

0.838

0.475

0.302

0.525

0.438

0.562

0.580

0.537

1.060

0.976

Clementine

0.246

0.140

0.895

0.877

0.719

0.760

0.696

0.205

0.649

0.212

0.228

1.154

Quiet

0.808

1.756

1.077

0.526

1.077

1.090

1.756

1.744

1.333

1.923

2.000

1.641

Yoshi

0.620

1.898

1.387

2.108

1.408

0.921

2.456

1.773

1.598

1.514

0.452

0.292


Question Variance (Values)

 

V13

V14

V15

V16

V17

V18

Elizabeth

0.909

1.193

1.350

1.053

0.629

0.547

Delilah

0.766

0.869

1.026

0.599

0.383

0.435

Atreus

0.911

0.947

0.290

0.485

0.422

0.194

Trico

0.000

0.981

0.400

0.810

1.295

0.381

Cheeseburger

0.314

1.192

1.238

1.886

1.028

0.552

Cappy

0.912

0.623

0.578

2.071

0.570

0.853

Braham

0.200

0.933

0.890

0.790

0.731

0.390

Cole

0.314

1.257

1.124

1.257

0.423

0.400

Squaddies

0.431

0.299

0.704

0.991

0.241

0.505

Pikachu

1.007

0.683

1.166

1.788

0.617

0.745

Villagers

0.654

1.966

1.277

0.890

0.558

0.797

Navi

1.282

1.038

1.738

1.363

1.655

1.400

Ghost

0.972

0.907

1.874

1.884

1.234

2.164

Companion Cube

1.084

0.310

2.037

2.217

1.338

0.499

Alyx

0.486

1.286

1.046

0.678

0.520

0.438

Clementine

1.064

0.982

0.942

0.263

1.457

0.140

Quiet

0.436

1.564

0.359

0.808

0.256

0.423

Yoshi

0.454

0.734

0.225

1.381

0.129

0.542


Question Variance (Stakes)

 

S19

S20

S21

S22

S23

S24

S25

Elizabeth

0.375

0.728

1.395

1.320

1.816

1.316

1.124

Delilah

0.278

0.689

0.821

0.862

1.414

1.477

0.290

Atreus

0.229

0.778

1.033

1.488

1.194

1.330

0.509

Trico

0.257

1.352

0.686

0.924

1.067

1.381

1.267

Cheeseburger

0.743

0.829

2.000

2.410

3.124

1.667

0.667

Cappy

0.687

0.260

2.159

0.887

1.131

0.586

0.758

Braham

0.748

1.033

0.648

0.914

1.248

1.248

1.162

Cole

0.267

0.695

1.314

1.495

1.829

0.781

1.124

Squaddies

0.708

0.381

2.679

1.083

0.513

0.381

0.732

Pikachu

0.615

0.301

1.638

1.958

2.285

0.503

0.442

Villagers

0.669

0.916

1.232

1.119

1.949

0.434

1.030

Navi

1.021

1.614

2.415

1.107

0.719

0.332

2.056

Ghost

2.062

1.122

1.926

2.020

0.410

1.481

1.230

Companion Cube

0.455

0.219

2.200

2.230

2.550

1.922

0.175

Alyx

0.542

0.722

1.526

1.674

1.526

0.795

1.085

Clementine

0.211

0.673

0.357

0.620

0.053

1.006

0.591

Quiet

1.256

0.859

1.756

1.269

1.436

1.141

1.077

Yoshi

0.531

0.143

2.271

1.986

1.583

2.546

0.728


Question Variance (Bonding)

 

B26

B27

B28

B29

B30

B31

Elizabeth

1.576

1.534

0.890

1.378

0.981

1.563

Delilah

0.923

0.563

1.159

2.703

1.027

1.401

Atreus

0.213

0.637

0.965

0.644

0.575

2.020

Trico

0.543

0.781

0.638

1.210

2.124

1.829

Cheeseburger

1.381

2.410

2.495

1.638

1.286

1.114

Cappy

1.910

0.966

1.508

1.539

0.961

0.742

Braham

0.690

0.390

0.748

0.190

0.748

1.157

Cole

1.981

1.429

1.638

0.924

1.638

0.924

Squaddies

3.396

1.771

1.591

1.525

1.236

2.091

Pikachu

2.092

1.394

1.688

1.432

1.283

1.875

Villagers

1.577

1.178

0.878

1.055

0.819

1.438

Navi

1.978

1.270

1.861

1.389

1.728

0.320

Ghost

0.881

2.369

0.974

1.744

0.717

1.331

Companion Cube

2.196

2.025

3.019

2.728

0.655

1.719

Alyx

0.773

1.173

0.510

0.593

1.457

1.373

Clementine

0.099

0.175

0.357

0.655

0.339

1.152

Quiet

1.141

1.231

1.231

1.974

1.744

1.526

Yoshi

2.083

1.587

1.434

1.887

0.917

1.780


Question Variance (Investment & Companionship Overall)

 

I32

I33

C34

C35

C36

Elizabeth

1.664

1.737

0.858

0.971

1.534

Delilah

0.592

0.254

0.589

0.592

0.401

Atreus

0.686

0.258

0.533

1.132

0.535

Trico

0.352

0.210

0.667

0.838

0.400

Cheeseburger

2.257

3.026

1.457

0.495

2.600

Cappy

1.225

2.116

1.033

0.942

1.287

Braham

0.648

1.007

1.300

1.433

0.662

Cole

1.781

1.897

0.410

0.829

1.400

Squaddies

2.173

2.225

0.861

1.155

1.799

Pikachu

1.775

2.418

0.959

0.636

1.996

Villagers

0.979

1.160

0.656

0.698

1.271

Navi

1.391

2.027

1.366

1.331

1.417

Ghost

1.772

2.382

1.148

1.754

1.743

Companion Cube

2.110

2.926

0.886

0.900

2.374

Alyx

0.905

0.823

0.414

0.445

0.720

Clementine

0.287

0.053

0.175

0.807

0.140

Quiet

1.103

3.808

1.410

0.641

1.423

Yoshi

1.180

2.685

0.530

1.394

1.345